Saturday, March 14, 2020
Almost all people are exposed to some kind of subliminal message everyday throughout life. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re supposedly used in almost every advertisement around us. But just because they are being used, does that mean these messages really work? That they are actually retained in our minds altering behavior, even for long periods of time. A subliminal message is an insufficiently intense message used to produce a discrete sensation by influencing one's mental process or behavior. Subliminal stimuli effect ones perception just below the threshold of consciousness. The theory behind subliminal stimuli is that human behavior can be controlled by messages that bypass conscious perception and operates directly on the unconscious, ultimately influencing ones behavior. The use of subliminal stimuli in advertising scares many; yet this technique is frequently used as a desirable means of contacting, tinkering with, and some may even say manipulating peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. Advertisers frequently use subliminal messages because they find them successful in helping to sell products. However, there are those advertisers who do not use them or believe in there ability. Some are convinced that subliminal advertising is a myth, and when selling an adequate product there is no reason to us such messages. The actual term 'subliminal advertising' dates back to the 1950's and was coined by American market researcher, James Vicary. He claimed that he had Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦discovered a way to reach people subliminally, by flashing advertising messages on a screen so briefly that although they weren't seen consciously they made the viewers do as suggestedÃ¢â¬ (www.parascope.com/articles). Many people reacted skeptically when first hearing of the technique, asking, Ã¢â¬Å"what's the point of an ad you can't see?Ã¢â¬ (www.parascope.com/articles). Vicary then conducted a six week test run at a theater in Fort Lee, New Jersey that caused a noticeable increase in concession... Free Essays on Subliminal Messages Free Essays on Subliminal Messages Almost all people are exposed to some kind of subliminal message everyday throughout life. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re supposedly used in almost every advertisement around us. But just because they are being used, does that mean these messages really work? That they are actually retained in our minds altering behavior, even for long periods of time. A subliminal message is an insufficiently intense message used to produce a discrete sensation by influencing one's mental process or behavior. Subliminal stimuli effect ones perception just below the threshold of consciousness. The theory behind subliminal stimuli is that human behavior can be controlled by messages that bypass conscious perception and operates directly on the unconscious, ultimately influencing ones behavior. The use of subliminal stimuli in advertising scares many; yet this technique is frequently used as a desirable means of contacting, tinkering with, and some may even say manipulating peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds. Advertisers frequently use subliminal messages because they find them successful in helping to sell products. However, there are those advertisers who do not use them or believe in there ability. Some are convinced that subliminal advertising is a myth, and when selling an adequate product there is no reason to us such messages. The actual term 'subliminal advertising' dates back to the 1950's and was coined by American market researcher, James Vicary. He claimed that he had Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦discovered a way to reach people subliminally, by flashing advertising messages on a screen so briefly that although they weren't seen consciously they made the viewers do as suggestedÃ¢â¬ (www.parascope.com/articles). Many people reacted skeptically when first hearing of the technique, asking, Ã¢â¬Å"what's the point of an ad you can't see?Ã¢â¬ (www.parascope.com/articles). Vicary then conducted a six week test run at a theater in Fort Lee, New Jersey that caused a noticeable increase in concession...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Master thesis - Research Proposal Example The pandemic of HIV/AIDS threatens not only the local population but has widespread ramifications for the rest of the world and needs to be addressed urgently and incorporated as intrinsic part of business strategy and social responsibility by the global business community. Financial aids to the sub Sahara is critical for developing infrastructure for the development processes so as to enable the local population to become self reliant and become proactive participants. The regions boast of the huge natural resources, rich in minerals and precious metals like gold, platinum, diamond etc. which are presently being exploited by the foreign agencies with scarce regard to the welfare of the local population. Financial aid would serve as the major incentive for promoting democratization of the republics and reinforcing equitable distribution of wealth through programmes and policies. The approach needs to be focused on literacy and development processes to promote income generating activities designed to raise the standard of living. But the rampant corruption in the sub Sahara greatly dissuades the donors which may defeat the objective of aid. According to a BBC report, Ã¢â¬Ëcorruption is costing Africa more than $148bn dollars a year, increasing the cost of goods by as much as 20%, deterring investment and holding back developmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (BBC, 2002). The corruption has been found to be the most insidious factor that infiltrates almost all strata of society of Sub Saharan Africa. From the high level political grafts to low level bribing of police and custom official has become the norm that de-accelerates the development process. It therefore, becomes the major instrument adversely impacts the objectives of financial aid and must be addressed to improve and improvise the outcome of the same. What is financial aidÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on the Sub Saharan
Monday, February 10, 2020
Responsibility of government for supporting the arts - Essay Example Classical example they can draw is governmental support of arts in the former Soviet Union. Soviet leaders have been carried out their control of arts in the Soviet Union, but they thought that there was necessity to control artists and for many internal ideological reasons. In spite of the control, Soviet government supported the arts through different state organizations and institutions, and many real masterpieces were created by the Soviet people in that period. Government must support arts, but not widely control it. There are some good examples of such supporting. The Illinois Arts Council (IAC) is a governmental organization the purpose of which is providing grants for different art organizations, institutions and festivals. "These grants generally are for the purpose of increasing their accessibility for people from other parts of the state or for people of lower income, but grants also may support special programs and exhibitions" (1). These programmes must be supported by government, because only state support can provide high level of arts development. Private organizations cannot always appropriate necessary funds for arts development.There are some more examples from the US history. "Government support was provided to artists during the Great Depression through the Works Project Administration (WPA). The purpose of this government largesse, however, seems to have been motivated primarily by the interest in providing work to the unemployed" (2). The governmental support of the arts also provides help for people who create masterpieces i n such trouble time as the Great Depression. Non-state organizations couldn't support artists in trouble time - only government can provide arts and artists with all means needed. Eloquent example of the necessity of governmental support of the arts is a copyright system which is established by the government. It allows "creators to retain the financial interests in their intellectual property, so the theory runs, they would be encouraged to create, which would be in the interests of the nation" (2). Government supports authors to gain material stimulus for their work and protects them from illegal use of their creations. Copyright system is widespread in all civilized countries that understand the necessity of the state support of the arts and artists who are always gold fund of any country and nation. Only government is able to support the arts and artists with the copyright system by all means of legislation.3. I have argued that government has a responsibility to support the arts, but if that support is going to produce anything of value, government must place no restrictions on the art that is produced. This view will become increasingly dominant in the coming century, because in our time it is especially important to provide high level support of arts. Many of these issues can never be resolved to everybody's satisfaction, but in the long run, promoting the idea that government is
Thursday, January 30, 2020
The Greek God Zeus Essay In Greek mythology, Zeus has the most prominent name among all the gods and goddesses. This is because he is the most powerful and formidable of all the deities. From the beginning, legend had established his power since he overthrown his own father to become the leader of the Greek gods and goddesses. Zeus was also notorious for his numerous affairs with women and the countless children produced from these affairs. In Greek literature, he was shown to be fierce, vengeful and pitiful of mortals. However, the authority of Zeus is not absolute or unlimited. He is prone to deceit and trickery. Zeus is both a powerful god and a flawed revered entity, which makes him one of the most interesting personalities in Greek mythology. Before the life of Zeus can be discussed, it is important to discuss the origins of Greek mythology. This is because the origin of Zeus can only be understood from the context of the beginnings of Greek mythology. According to Hesoid, prior to the existence of all things, there was initially Chaos (Rose, 1991). The existence of Chaos was considered the beginning of all things, as it was the existence from which other beings were derived. Chaos gave birth to other beings. These were Night, Darkness (also known as Erebos), Love (also referred to as Eros), Tartaros and Earth. Night and Darkness were responsible for the creation of Day and Sky (also called as Aither). Meanwhile, Earth created the Sea (or Pontos), the Mountains and Heaven on its own (Rose, 1991). The account of Hesoid continued with the union of Heaven and Earth (Rose, 1991). Heaven, that which is also referred to as Uranos, is not really considered a god. On the contrary, Earth (sometimes called Gaia) is truly considered as a goddess. It was said that this unlikely couple produced several offspring. These were Ã¢â¬Å"Okeanos and his eddies, Koios and Krios, Hyperion and Iapetos, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne, Phoibe and TethysÃ¢â¬ (Rose, 1991, p. 15). Kronos was the last offspring. He was the most frightful of all children, for he harbored hatred towards his father. Eventually, the family was torn apart by conflict. Heaven became overwhelmed by jealousy towards his children that he forced them all into EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s body. When Earth could no longer deal with the suffering, she asked her children to punish their father for revenge. Only Kronos answered his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s call; with a sickle, he castrated his father (Rose, 1991). Collectively, the children of Heaven and Earth are called the Titans (Rose, 1991). The Titans are also known as the Elder Gods (Hamilton, 1969). Among the Titans, six composed a different group (Rose, 1991). These include Iapetos, Okeanos, Kronos and their respective wives, Themis, Tethys and Rhea. The most significant couple in this group is Kronos and Rhea, as they were the parents of Zeus. According to legend, Heaven and Earth predicted that one of KronosÃ¢â¬â¢ children would unseat him from power. Kronos was alarmed by the warning; as a result, he swallowed each of his children the moment they were born. Rhea disapproved of KronosÃ¢â¬â¢ actions, so when she gave birth to her youngest, Zeus, she decided to hide him from his father. Rather than give the child, Rhea handed to Kronos a rock clothed like a newborn infant. The prediction of Heaven and Earth came true; when Zeus grew up, he became opposed to his father. While Rhea plotted to trick Kronos into throwing up his children, Zeus came to Tartaros to set free KronosÃ¢â¬â¢ brethren who were jailed there. Cyclops was one of those who were saved, and he provided Zeus with lightning and thunder as gifts in exchange for their freedom. Eventually, the conflict between Kronos and Zeus intensified into a full-blown battle between father and son. The rest of the brethren, including Hekatoncheires and Briareos, were on the side of Zeus. Even Styx and her children proved to be ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ allies. It was said that the battle lasted for a decade. Zeus and his supporters fought from Mount. Olympus, while Kronos and most of the Titans established their post from Mount Orthrys. Themis and Prometheus were the only Titans who did not participate in KronosÃ¢â¬â¢ fight. The battle between the immortals disturbed both the earth and Tartaros; eventually, Zeus emerged as the victor, due to his thunderbolts and stone showers caused by Hekatoncheires. Kronos and his allies were kept in a prison located in Tartaros, with Hekatoncheires serving as the prison guard. The victory of Zeus against Kronos made him the leader among the gods and forced the Titans into lower positions (Rose, 1991). The origin of Zeus is uncertain, as the details of his birth vary according to different sources. Two stories state different locations as the birthplace of Zeus. One story stated that Zeus was born in Crete, while another claimed that the god was born in Arkadia (Rose, 1991). According to the tales that do not establish Crete as his birthplace, Zeus was brought to Crete and was concealed in a cave at Lyktos. Meanwhile, the Cretan legend claimed that Zeus was born in a cave located in either Mount Dikte or Mount Ide. In this cave, Zeus was cared for by local gods and goddesses. It was said that Zeus did not go hungry as a goat named Amaltheia brought him food. The bees also provided Zeus with their honey. It was also said that his cries were inaudible due to the loud war-dance performed by the Kuretes (Rose, 1991). There were various objects closely associated with Zeus. Two of the most prominent objects are the thunderbolt and the aegis (Rose, 1991). The thunderbolt was the godÃ¢â¬â¢s destructive weapon; its effect was similar to that of a sharp and powerful missile. Greek art represented the thunderbolt of Zeus as accompanied by flashes of lightning; sometimes, it was also depicted as having wings. As for the aegis, it was the godÃ¢â¬â¢s breastplate. It was illustrated by various authors as either a garment or a shield. In a mere mortal, the aegis may seem like an ordinary armor. However, in the hands of Zeus, the aegis served a mighty weapon with magical abilities. According to legend, whenever the aegis was waved at a foe, this individual will be overwhelmed with fright. If the origins of the aegis will be traced, one would find that it is simply a cloak created from the hide of a goat with the hairs still in it. To an ordinary human, the aegis is known for defensive purposes, especially against the weather and the attacks of the enemy. Nonetheless, the aegis is worn by Zeus is filled with his mana, or his deific force (Rose, 1991). Aside from the thunderbolt and the aegis, there were other things attributed to Zeus. The eagle is considered as the godÃ¢â¬â¢s bird of choice, while the oak tree was his favorite (Hamilton, 1969). The oracle of Zeus is situated in Dodona, where oak trees were abundant. It was established that the will of Zeus was shown by the movement of the oak leaves, which was later interpreted by the priests (Hamilton, 1969). Zeus belonged to the 12 Olympian gods who reigned after the downfall of the Titans (Hamilton, 1969). He served as the head of this family of divine beings. The group included the siblings of Zeus: his brothers Poseidon and Hades, as well as his sisters Hestia and Hera. The 12 divinities also included the children of Zeus, including Ares, Athena, Apollo, Aphrodite, Hermes and Artemis. Hephaestus was the twelfth god in the group. After Zeus dethroned Kronos, he sought to distribute the universe among his brothers and himself (Rose, 1991). The sea became the official territory of Poseidon, while Hades became the ruler of the underworld. In the division of the universe, Zeus emerged as the mightiest among the three (Hamilton, 1969). He was called various names, such as the Ã¢â¬Å"Rain-god, the Cloud-gatherer and the Lord of the SkyÃ¢â¬ (Hamilton, 1969, p. 27). In fact, Zeus was more powerful than all the gods and goddesses combined (Hamilton, 1969). Despite ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ status, there were territories which were not under his reign. The three gods agreed that Mount Olympus and the earth would be considered as common ground. It is important to note that the sisters were not included in the distribution of the universe (Rose, 1991). This exclusion was apparently due to the rules of ancient Greek law. After he defeated his father, Zeus had another objective: to search for a wife. He was soon married, but he was also involved in affairs with various women. The marriage of Zeus to Hera is most notable in Greek mythology, though it was suggested that this was not the only marriage Zeus was involved with. According to Homer, Hera was ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ first choice for a wife, as their romance began prior to the defeat of Kronos (Rose, 1991). Ares and Hephaestus, the God of War and the God of Fire respectively, were the children from their union (Hamilton, 1969). However, several accounts stated that Hephaestus was the son of Hera alone. The divine marriage proved to be shaky, due ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ infidelity. The supreme deity was often depicted as a womanizer, as he had this habit of falling in love with many women. His extramarital affairs were countless and often produced children, mortal and immortal alike. It was said that Zeus had to resort to all sorts of trickery to conceal his unfaithfulness, just as he had used beguilement as a means to lure women. However, Hera usually discovered about these affairs. Several accounts of Hera showed that she was mainly concerned with chastising the other females in ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ life. She punished all those whom Zeus fell in love with, though they only submitted to him because of force or trickery. Regardless of their situation, Hera remained filled with hatred and she also punished their children (Hamilton, 1969). Some sources suggest that Zeus was involved in other marriages. Prior to his union with Hera, he was married to Themis, who was one of the Titans (Rose, 1991). This marriage resulted in the birth of the Seasons, as well as the Moirai. After Themis, Zeus was involved with Eurynome. According to Hesoid, she was an offsping of Okeanos and Tethys. The union between Zeus and Eurynome produced Charites, better known in the English language as Graces, based on its Latin origins. The Graces consisted of Aglaia, Euphrosyne and Thalia; they were also known as Splendor, Mirth and Good Cheer respectively (Hamilton, 1969). In most accounts, the Graces were not considered as different entities; they were often depicted as a trinity of beauty and grace. Meanwhile, Themis was not the only Titaness whom Zeus married (Rose, 1991). Zeus also married Mnemosyne, and their union produced the nine Muses. This union was said to have occurred after ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship with Demeter (Rose, 1991). Initially, the Muses were similar to the Graces in the sense they were not distinctly identified from one another (Hamilton, 1969). Eventually, the Muses were distinguished to each other according to their respective fields. Calliope was the Muse of epic poetry, Clio of history, Erato of love poetry, Euterpe of lyric poetry, Polyhymnia of the songs for the deities, Thalia of comedy and Terpsichore of dance (Hamilton, 1969). A significant relationship is the union between Zeus and Demeter (Rose, 1991). The offspring of this marriage was Kore, who is better known as Persephone. According to an Orphic account, Zeus was also in love with his own daughter. He assumed the shape of a dragon or snake to mate with her. Their union produced a son named Zagreus, who was later killed by the Titans based on HeraÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. However, this account is rather obscure; the story is contrary to the tradition of Greek mythology which indicates that Persephone was married to Hades, the brother of Zeus (Rose, 1991). Some of the deities included in the 12 Olympians were children of Zeus from his affairs with other women. Apollo is recognized as the God of Truth and Light (Hamilton, 1969). His twin, Artemis, is known to be a brave huntswoman. Both deities were the children of Zeus from his relationship with Leto. Hermes, who is known as the Messenger of Zeus, was the offspring of the supreme god and Maia, the daughter of Atlas. Aphrodite, the Goddess of Beauty and Love, was the offspring of Zeus and Dione according to the HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Iliad. Nevertheless, another account claimed that Aphrodite came from foam in the sea (Hamilton, 1969). The aforementioned gods and goddesses are only some of the identified children of Zeus. Zeus is known to be the mighty Greek god who had multiple romantic affairs. However, his other attributes were best illustrated in both The Iliad and The Odyssey by Homer. In these epics, the characteristics of the king of the Greek gods are exposed to the reader. While the stories present the extent of his power and personality, these also reveal his limitations and flaws. For instance, it is already a well-known fact that Zeus is supreme and powerful enough to overthrow Kronos. In Book VIII of The Iliad, he asserted that power by reminding the other gods and goddesses that he is the greatest of them all (Hamilton, 1969). The war between the Greeks and the Trojans had forced the deities to take sides and intervene with the mortal conflict. However, in a gathering in Mount Olympus, Zeus warned the other deities against interfering in the war. He reminded them that even in a tug-of-war between him and the others, he would still win. Homer wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Fasten a rope of gold to heaven and lay hold, every god and goddess. You could not drag down Zeus. But if I wished to drag you down, then I wouldÃ¢â¬ (as cited in Hamilton, 1969, p. 27). Zeus was indeed the strongest among all Greek gods. Despite being the mightiest among all the deities, Zeus was depicted as a god whose will was not absolute. This was because his stand towards the war and divine intervention constantly shifted. When The Iliad began, Zeus wanted to have little or no involvement in the Trojan War. When Aphrodite became injured as a result of her involvement in the mortal battle, Zeus instructed her to stay way (Hamilton, 1969). In a similar instance, when Diomedes injured Ares, Zeus was more considerate to the former because he found the latter too impulsive. Also, there was a time in the epic when Hera and Athena wanted to participate in the war and Zeus was forced to threaten them just to prevent them from meddling. At one point, Zeus even seemed to want an end to the intensified conflict; when Paris disappeared from his duel with Menelaus, he suggested that the war should end because Menelaus was technically the winner (Hamilton, 1969). However, it is important to note that Zeus was already involved with the war early on in the epic. The problem with Agamemnon forced Achilles to seek his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s help in asking for ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ intervention (Hamilton, 1969). As a favor to her son, Thetis did ask Zeus for the temporary victory of the Trojans just so Achilles can prove to the Greeks that they are ineffective in battle without him. While he insisted to the other gods and goddesses that they must not intervene, he himself was a divine participant in the war. He listened to the plea of Thetis and soon enough, he tricked Agamemnon through a dream. In Book XI, Zeus had informed Hector that he will become victorious after Agamemnon gets injured in battle. Zeus was also shown to provide omens to the mortal participants of the war. In Book XII, Zeus sent an eagle flying with a snake in its claws; later on, the eagle dropped the snake when it was bitten. This proved to be a bad omen which was ignored by Hector. Later on in the epic, Zeus did allow the other deities to meddle in the war. The divine intervention in the war even caused the gods and goddesses themselves to be at war with each other. Instead of being a participant, Zeus was merely a spectator in the divine squabble (Hamilton, 1969). The epics of Homer also depicted Zeus as a god of mercy. Whenever a mortal is placed in an appropriate situation, the powerful god took pity on them. After Achilles killed Hector in The Iliad, he continually dragged his enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s corpse (Hamilton, 1969). Zeus and the rest of the gods were not happy with this. Zeus was forced to approach Thetis to put a stop to this unfortunate situation. He asked the deity to talk to her son. In The Odyssey, Odysseus had not found his way home for two decades. For a time, he stayed in an island with the deity Calypso. Calypso refused to let him go and eventually became a prisoner of the island. Zeus knew Odysseus did not deserve this fate and he sought the cooperation of the gods to aid the mortal on his way home. Zeus asked Hermes to travel to the island and convince Calypso to set Odysseus free. Because no one can refuse the command of Zeus, Calypso was forced to do as the god asked (Hamilton, 1969). In The Odyssey, Zeus was also shown to be capable of wrath and vengeance. The supreme god was portrayed as having livestock in his possession (Rose, 1991). On the island of Thrinakie, some of OdysseusÃ¢â¬â¢ companions had killed some cattle and sheep to address their hunger. What these men did not know was that those animals were owned by the supreme god himself. Zeus punished these me by sinking their ship. However, he spared Odysseus from drowning (Rose, 1991). Zeus may be presented as powerful, merciful and vengeful god, but the leader of the Greek gods also has his share of imperfections. Zeus is devoid of omnipotence (Hamilton, 1969). He is a powerful god but his power is not unlimited. In addition, Zeus is not omnipresent either. His limitations as a god allowed other deities to deceive him and take advantage of his weaknesses. Because Zeus was not omnipresent, Poseidon took advantage of this limitation to further his cause as proven in The Iliad. Zeus had demanded that the other gods and goddesses should not be involved in the war. In Book XIII, Zeus was busy and was not able to follow the events in the war. In his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s absence, Poseidon helped the Greeks aboard his underwater chariot. Despite his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s warning, Poseidon went to the battle in disguise to inspire the Greeks (Hamilton, 1969). Hera also took advantage of ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ limitations. The goddess had been against the Trojans from the start, since Paris chose Aphrodite as the most beautiful goddess. From her post in Mount Olympus, Hera was overjoyed with the participation of Poseidon in the war (Hamilton, 1969). She wanted to guarantee that Zeus will not see them interfering in the affairs of the mortals. Zeus was busy in Mount Ida, so he was unable to prevent the other deities from participating in the war. Hera planned to distract Zeus so the other deities can continue their interference without being caught. She enlisted the help of both Aphrodite and Sleep to succeed in her plan. First, she prepared herself in her plot to seduce her husband; she bathed, wore perfume and got dressed. Aphrodite assisted Hera and made her so beautiful that Zeus would not be able to resist her. Then, Hera asked Sleep to visit Zeus. She made her way to Mount Ida and wished to greet Zeus first with flattery and lies. However, Zeus became so overwhelmed by her beauty that he immediately asked her to lay with him. Hera did not want Zeus to see what was happening to the war, so she insisted that they should go to her chamber underwater to avoid the being seen. Zeus refused. After they made love, Zeus fell into a slumber due to Sleep. With Zeus in deep sleep, Poseidon continued with his interference. When Zeus woke up, he realized what happened and reprimanded Hera (Hamilton, 1969). The case with Poseidon and Hera showed how limited ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ power was, even if he was the most powerful god in Greek mythology. His brother Poseidon had undermined his authority when he intervened with the war despite his orders. His own wife Hera was capable of deceiving him, who was supposed to be the mightiest of them all. With the use of trickery, Zeus came under the control of deities more inferior to him. In the aforementioned incident, his love and lust for women proved to be his downfall. He was easily distracted by the physical appearance that he became unmindful of what was actually happening with the mortals. Hence, Zeus was a powerful god but not a perfect one. The limitations of his power allowed other gods and goddesses to deceive him. The reputation of Zeus as the most supreme among all Greek gods and goddesses is justified. He defeated his father Kronos to become the most powerful among all deities. He controlled the Titans and put them under their control. Whenever he was crossed, he sought revenge and severely punished those who had earned his wrath. Meanwhile, he took pity of those who deserved his mercy. Nonetheless, the supremacy of Zeus was not an assurance of his perfection. Zeus was also flawed like the mortals he governed. One of his weaknesses was his love of women, which resulted in many relationships and children. His will was not fixed; he constantly changed his mind. He was not a god of omnipresence or omniscience; this limitation caused him to be a victim of beguilement. Zeus proved to be the most interesting among all Greek gods. While he was mighty and formidable, he was also weak and imperfect. References Hamilton, E. (1969). Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes. New York: Mentor. Rose, H. J. (1991). A Handbook of Greek Mythology. New York: Routledge.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
OÃ¢â¬â¢NeillÃ¢â¬â¢s The Emperor Jones In Eugene OÃ¢â¬â¢NeillÃ¢â¬â¢s The Emperor Jones, Emperor Brutus Jones is an African American male who has risen, Ã¢â¬Å"from stowaway to Emperor (of Haiti) in two yearsÃ¢â¬ (343). Jones looks down upon his subjects, viewing them as nothing but animals, even though they are African just like himself. As payback, Jones himself goes through a transformation which dehumanizes him and gives him very primal, animal related characteristics. Through this juxtaposition, OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill makes his play a critique of the dehumanizing effects people in power have had over the black race. One of the first characters introduced in the play, the old native woman, has been completely dehumanized by the EmperorÃ¢â¬â¢s reign. When she realizes she cannot escape or reason with the regime, which is represented in her scene through Smithers, she immediately dehumanizes herself. The woman, Ã¢â¬Å"seeing the uselessness of struggling, gives way to frantic terror, and sinks to the ground, embracing his knees supplicatinglyÃ¢â¬ (340). The woman is no longer a human being. She is not on an equal playing field with those that have oppressed her. Words like uselessness, frantic, sinks, and supplicatingly, all serve to show she believes she has no other option but to allow the regime to dehumanize her. The fact that she sinks to the ground, shows that she is tired and has been dehumanized for so long, treated as property for so long, there is no point in hoping for anything different. She just accepts the dehumanization now. Struggling to be viewed as a human being is equ ated with a useless action. Later in the scene, the woman further proves the Emperor has complete control over her. She states, Ã¢â¬Å"Him sleepÃ¢â¬ (341). The use of the word Him is intere... ...anization has been completed. The scene directions of scene seven state, Ã¢â¬Å"JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ voice is heard from the left rising and falling in the long, despairing wail of the chained slavesÃ¢â¬ (359). He is unified with the slaves. His ability to speak along with the slaves has been taken away. They have been dehumanized to a wail, a sound or noise, much in the same way animals are reduced to speaking in noises. Jones does not fight or try to kill these rowers. He realizes this is his history, and how wrong he was to enslave and dehumanize his fellow members of the black race. This realization is shown when he states, Ã¢â¬Å"Oh Gorry, IÃ¢â¬â¢se skeered in dis place! IÃ¢â¬â¢se skeered. Oh Lawd, pertect dis sinner!Ã¢â¬ (359). He is afraid just like all blacks would have been in the slave ships. He no longer is trying to exert power over those members of his own race that are less fortunate than him.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Thea.Ã¢â¬ Dani was shaking her arm. Ã¢â¬ËThey're talking to you.Ã¢â¬ The visions were gone. Thea was standing in Gran's workshop, seeing everything as if through a distorting lens. People's faces seemed to stretch; their voices seemed to drag. Ã¢â¬Å"I asked, how did you learn the invocation for summoning spirits?Ã¢â¬ Gran said slowly. Eric. He won't wait; he'll start without me. Or will he? I told him not to. But he'll be worrying about the partyÃ¢â¬ ¦. The party. All those kidsÃ¢â¬ ¦ even little kids. Humans, but people. like baby chicks with a hawk up above. How many of them will end up like Kevin? Ã¢â¬Å"The invocation for summoning spirits!Ã¢â¬ Gran was shouting, as if Thea were hard of hearing. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦ weÃ¢â¬ ¦ I heard you at Samhain two years ago. In Vermont. I saw the summoning the Inner Circle did.Ã¢â¬ Even her own voice sounded weird and distorted. Ã¢â¬Å"We saw you. Both of us. We were hiding behind the trees and you never even noticed,Ã¢â¬ Blaise said clearly, and the bells rang again. Dimly, Thea felt appreciation. But most of her mind was reeling from horrible thought to thought. EricÃ¢â¬ ¦ but if I try to get to him, if the Inner Circle finds out he's involvedÃ¢â¬ ¦ that will get him killed. A human who knows about the Night World. Immediate death sentence. But Suzanne. If he burns those dummies, Suzanne will kill him the way she killed Kevin. No matter what happened, Eric was going to end up dead. UnlessÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"WhichÃ¢â¬ ¦ of the spiritsÃ¢â¬ ¦ did you call?Ã¢â¬ Gran was shouting, as if Thea was now not only hard of hearing but slow of understanding. UnlessÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"That's what I want to tell you,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. She could see the way. It would mean the end for her, but she might possibly save Eric. If there was enough time, if they would let her alone, if Eric wasn't right now trying to be a heroÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"I want to tell you about it,Ã¢â¬ Thea said again. And then the words were tumbling out in a rush, faster and faster, as if some dam had broken inside her. Ã¢â¬Å"And I'll tell you everything-but please, Grandma, please, you have to let me go out now. Just for a little while. There's something I have to do. You have to let me go, and then I'll come back here and you can do whatever you want to me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hold on a minute,Ã¢â¬ Mother Cybele said, but Thea couldn't stop. Ã¢â¬Å"Please-please. Grandma. I've done a terrible thing-and I'm the only one who can take care of it. I'll come back-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Wait, wait, wait. Calm down,Ã¢â¬ Gran said. She looked agitated herself. Ã¢â¬Å"What's this rush all of sudden? Try it slowly. What do you think you have to do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I have to put her back.Ã¢â¬ Thea saw that she was going to have to give some explanation. She tried to speak dearly and slowly, to make them understand. Ã¢â¬Å"The spirit I let out, Grandma. Her name is Suzanne Blanchet and she was burned in the sixteen hundreds. And she's out, out there, and she's already killed a human.Ã¢â¬ Everyone was listening now, some leaning forward, some frowning. Thea looked around at the circle of faces, talking to all of them. She was still terrified, but what did that matter? Eric mattered. Ã¢â¬Å"Last week she killed a boy at my high school. And tonight she's going to kill more people, at the high school Halloween party. I can't explain how I know-there isn't time. But I do know. And I'm the only one who can stop her. I called her; I'm the only one who can put her back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, but unfortunately it's not that easy,Ã¢â¬ a low voice said. Thea turned and identified Rhys, a wiry man in a white lab coat. Ã¢â¬Å"If the spirit's at large-Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know about that, but I have a way to trap her. It's all set up, and IÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Thea hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"I've tricked somebody into helping me,Ã¢â¬ she said slowly. Ã¢â¬Å"And he's in danger right now. Which is why you have to let me go, let me take care of this. Please.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You want to go to the high school, where the party is,Ã¢â¬ Aunt Ursula said. Although her lips were as thin as ever, she didn't sound angry. More-astute. Thea opened her mouth to say no, and then stopped, confused again. The party-or the desert? If Suzanne was really killing people at the party, she should go there. But only if Eric wasn't doing something to attract Suzanne to the desert. He was still more important to her than anyone else. But if he wasn't doing something-and if Suzanne was at the party-she might kill before Thea and Eric could lure herÃ¢â¬ ¦. I'm going crazy. She felt, literally, as if she might faint. Her head was swimming. There were too many possibilities. It all depended on where Suzanne was right now, and there was no way to know that. Thea began to shake violently, black dots dancing in front of her eyes. I don't know what to do. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorryÃ¢â¬ ¦ could everybody listen for a moment? I'm seeing something.Ã¢â¬ It was Aradia's voice, quiet and gently self-possessed. Mature, even though she was only a little older than Thea. Thea tried to see her through the black dots. Ã¢â¬Å"I think it's something important, something about what we're talking about,Ã¢â¬ Aradia said. Her beautiful face, with its smooth skin the color of coffee with cream, was turned toward Thea. Her wide brown eyes looked straight ahead without focus, the way they always did. Aradia couldn't see with those eyes-but then she didn't need to. She saw with her mind-and saw things that were hidden to most people. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm seeing a boy-he's dressed in some old-fashioned costume. He's beside a fire, inside a circle of stones.Ã¢â¬ EricÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬Å"He's got a stick-an ember. He's looking around. Now he's going toÃ¢â¬ ¦ it looks like a scarecrow. I can't see it well. There's a pile of sticks underneath it. He's bending. He's lighting the sticks.Ã¢â¬ No. Ã¢â¬Å"I have to go,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. She wasn't asking permission anymore. Aradia was still speaking. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, the sticks are catching fire. Now I can see betterÃ¢â¬ ¦ and it's not a scarecrow; it looks sort of like a witch. A doll.Ã¢â¬ She stopped, her lovely blind eyes widening. Ã¢â¬Å"It's-and it's moving-no, there's something moving it. I can see it now-a spirit. A spirit is moving the doll. It's coming out now-toward the boy-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I have to go,Ã¢â¬ Thea said. And then she was moving, pushing her way between Rhys and Old Bob, breaking out of the circle. The beads of the curtain struck her face, clattering as they fell back behind her. Ã¢â¬Å"Thea, wait a minute!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thea, come back here!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ursula, you go get her-Ã¢â¬Å" The jeep. My backpack's in the jeep. I have to get it first. The keys to the Lincoln were hanging on a nail by the back door. Thea grabbed them. She pushed the back door open just as three or four people came hurrying through the bead curtain. She slammed the door in their faces. Get to the car. Fast. Now drive. She backed out of the alley, tires squealing. She could see light spill as the door to the shop opened, but by then she was turning onto Barren Street. She found herself driving at some new level, squeezing through the tail end of yellow lights, recognizing shortcuts in the dark. In just a few minutes she was at the Night World club with the jack-o'-lanterns on the porch. There was no place to park the Lincoln. She left it in the middle of the street, with the keys still in the ignition. She pulled the key to the jeep out of her belt and jumped in. Hurry. Hurry. She burned rubber again getting the jeep moving. Hurry. The freeway. Just let me get to him. And let it not be too late. That's all I ask, after that I don't care. Would you give up everything? The voice didn't seem like a stranger this time, didn't seem menacing. Just curious. And Thea had an answer. Yes. If I can just get there, in time, I can send him away. I can tell him some story, make him go somehow. Make him hide. I'll tell the Circle I tricked him or enchanted him into helping; I won't even tell them his name. They can't make me. Whatever they do to me, he'll be safe. That's all I care about. That's all I'm asking. But even that was a lot, and she knew it, so she kept her foot mashed down on the gas pedal. Freeway off ramp. Side road. She drove crazily fast. The pounding inside her head kept saying hurry, hurry, even as she was careening off curbs. Desert. Now the road was bad. It was hard to see; the moon was almost down. The jeep lunged over bumps and lurched into potholes. Eric, be doing something. Be talking to her, be running. You're so smart, please, please, be smart now. Keep her distracted, keep her hair away from your neck. How strong was a spirit? Thea didn't know. Please, I see everything so clearly now. I've been selfish, only thinking of me, what would make me happy. All that Ã¢â¬Å"encased in iceÃ¢â¬ garbage. I should have been dancing in the street. As long as Eric is all right, I don't care if he lives on Mars, I don't care if I never see him again. As long as he's well I'm happier than anybody has a right to be. A jolt rattled her teeth. She was off the road now, driving by landmarks. Through forests of dead yuccas that looked like skinny gray Cousin Its. It's taking so long, it's too long. Hurry. Hurry. She could see red sandstone in front of her. Pillars in the headlights. That's it! Go, go! The jeep rocketed over clumps of blackbrush. She could see fire in the depression between the pillars. She drove straight toward it. Fire-movement-the top of a silhouetteÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Eric!Ã¢â¬ She was yelling even as she slammed on the brakes. The jeep ground to a shuddering stop a few inches from a misshapen sandstone tower. Ã¢â¬Å"Eric!Ã¢â¬ She had the backpack in her hand. She tore the door open and jumped out, running. Ã¢â¬Å"Thea! Stay out of here!Ã¢â¬ She saw him. The light of the fire cast an eerie glow onto the already lurid sandstone. Everything seemed red, as if this place were bathed in blood. The roar of the jeep's engine and the roar of the fire merged to sound like the flames of hell. But Brie was alive and fighting. Fighting it. Thea threw herself at it, even as her brain was registering impressions. A wraith shape that looked at one second like a woman, and the next second like tattered clouds. Part of it seemed to be coiled around Eric, and he had both hands at his throat. Bits of the pine-needle amulet Thea had made for him were scattered around his feet. Useless. Ã¢â¬Å"Get away from him! I'm the one who set this up!Ã¢â¬ Thea screamed. She reached Eric and grabbed wildly at the wraith, at the part of it around his throat. Her hands felt Eric's hands, felt cold air. Ã¢â¬Å"No-Thea, watch out-Ã¢â¬Å" She saw the thing come free of Eric, who staggered. She saw it re-form, gather, then dive straight for her. Ã¢â¬Å"Thea!Ã¢â¬ Eric knocked her sideways. Cold air rushed by. She and Eric fell in a heap. She gasped Ã¢â¬Å"Eric, go,Ã¢â¬ even before she got up. She tried to shove at him, looking around for the wraith. Ã¢â¬Å"Go-get out of here! The jeep's running-get in and just drive. I'll call you later.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Stay back to back,Ã¢â¬ Eric said breathlessly. Ã¢â¬Å"She's incredibly fast.Ã¢â¬ He added through his teeth, Ã¢â¬Å"You know I'm not leaving.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This is witch stuff, you jerk!Ã¢â¬ she snarled, standing back to back. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want you. You'll just get in my way!Ã¢â¬ It was a valiant effort. She even managed to inject something like hatred into her voice. And Eric wasn't perfect. He turned around, grabbed her by the shoulder, and yelled, Ã¢â¬Å"You know I'm not going, so don't waste any more time!Ã¢â¬ Then he shoved her sideways again and freezing wind streaked by her cheek, leaving her ear numb. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry,Ã¢â¬ he said in his normal voice. Ã¢â¬Å"You okay?Ã¢â¬ Thea spun and looked behind her. The wraith was bobbing there. It was shaped like a woman made of vapor, with arms and legs only suggested, but with a long tail of hair that whipped around. Ã¢â¬Å"I've got the stuff,Ã¢â¬ Thea muttered to Eric. Admit- ting she knew he'd never leave. Ã¢â¬Å"But it'll take a few minutes to do the spell. We'll have to keep out of-Ã¢â¬ She was watching the lashing tail, but she wasn't fast enough. There was a sound-something between the snap of a whip and the crackle of electricity- and the tail flashed out. It was around her neck. At first it just felt cold. Insubstantial but icy, like a scarf of subzero wind. But then the wraith gave a jerk and it tightened and it did have substance. It felt like metal, like a pipe full of supercooled liquid, like the tentacle of some alien creature with ice for blood. It was choking her. She couldn't breathe and she couldn't get her fingers under it. It squeezed tighter, hurting her. She could feel her eyes start to bulge. Ã¢â¬Å"Look at me!Ã¢â¬ Eric yelled. He had a stick that was blazing at one end and he was dancing up and down like a crazy person on the other side of the fire. Ã¢â¬Å"Look! Suzanne! I'm going to get your little sister!Ã¢â¬ He poked the burning stick at the dummy Lucienne, not at the wood piled around her, but at the actual doll. Ã¢â¬Å"There! There! How do you like that?Ã¢â¬ He jabbed at the doll. A ring of fire blossomed in the black clothes. Ã¢â¬Å"Confess you're a witch!Ã¢â¬ Thea felt something slide away and her neck was free. She tried to shout a warning to Eric, but all that came out was a croak. He was already diving to one side anyway. That must be what he's been doing all this time. Dodging. Ã¢â¬Å"Eric, keep it up!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, but work fast!Ã¢â¬ He threw himself the other way. She forced herself to turn her attention from him. Her backpack was at the edge of the circle where she'd dropped it. She grabbed it and dumped the contents out on the ground. She had to do this right and she had to do it faster than she'd ever worked a spell before. Oak and ash. She threw them on the central fire, then scooted toward it, dragging the other materials close with a sweep of her arm. She ripped open a plastic bag and grabbed the quassia chips. They were light, and she had to thrust her hand into the flames to make sure they actually went in the fire. Blessed thistle was powder; she threw it. Mandrake root was solid, she threw it, too. She had just grabbed the ounce vial when Eric shouted, Ã¢â¬Å"Thea, duck.Ã¢â¬ She didn't look up to see what she was ducking. She fell flat instantly. It saved her. Icy wind blew her hair almost into the fire. Ã¢â¬Å"Suzanne!Ã¢â¬ Eric was yelling. Ã¢â¬Å"I've got your brother! Look!Ã¢â¬ There were fires at all three stakes now, and Eric was dashing between them, poking at one figure after another. Thea pulled the plastic cap off the vial with her teeth. She shook it into the fire, her hand in the flames again. One, two, three. The fire roared up, louder than ever, and pure blue. Thea fell back from it. Ã¢â¬Å"Suzanne! Over here!Ã¢â¬ Eric's voice was faint beyond the roar. Tears were running down Thea's face, her nose and eyes stinging from the acrid smell. She fumbled for the last object necessary for the sending-backÃ¢â¬ ¦ the bag of residue from the bronze bowl. She took a handful in her left hand and dropped it between two charcoaled logs at the edge of the fire. Then she stood up-and saw that Eric was in trouble. He'd lost his burning stick. The wraith had him by the throat and it was whirling him around, changing shape every second. His mouth was open, but Thea couldn't hear any sound. Ã¢â¬Å"May I be given the Power of the Words of HecateÃ¢â¬ She screamed it, into the roaring fire, toward the wheeling, changing spirit shape. And the words came, rolling off her tongue with a power of their own: Ã¢â¬Å"From the heart of the flameÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back! Through the narrow pathÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back!Ã¢â¬ She put all her own power into the words, too, screaming them with an authority that she'd never felt in herself before. Because the wraith was fighting. It didn't want to go anywhere. Ã¢â¬Å"To the airy voidÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back! Through the mist of yearsÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back!Ã¢â¬ Eric staggered, was jerked sideways. He seemed to be lifted off his feet by the wraith. Ã¢â¬Å"To beyond the veilÃ¢â¬ ¦ I send you back! Go speedily, conveniently, and without delay!Ã¢â¬ Eric's feet were kicking in the air. This is how Kevin died, Thea realized suddenly and with absolute certainty. She found herself yelling words she'd never heard before. Ã¢â¬Å"By the power of Earth and Air and Water! By the power of Fire on this night of Hecate! By my own power as a daughter of Hellewise! Go speedily, conveniently and without delay, you bitch!Ã¢â¬ She had no idea where that came from. But the next instant Eric fell. The wraith had dropped him. It shot toward Thea-but then it stopped as if it had slammed into an invisible brick wall. It was directly over the fire. Caught. The blue flames were belching smoke-but sideways. Thea could see the wraith dearly above them. And for the first time, it didn't look like a cloud shape. It looked like a woman. A girl. Older than Thea, but still in her teens. With long dark hair that floated around her and a pale face and huge sad eyes. Her lips were parted as if she were trying to speak. Thea stared. She heard herself whisper, Ã¢â¬Å"SuzanneÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The girl held out a pale hand toward her. But at the same moment the fire flared up again. It seemed to turn the girl's hair to fire, too. Dark fire was burning all around her and there was an expression of infinite sadness on her face. Thea reached out a hand instinctively- The fire roared- And there was a flash like lightning. Suzanne had been drawn to the heart of the flame. And now the lightning formed a cone: the narrow path. Plastic bags and other debris whipped around the circle as if caught in a whirlwind. Suzanne and the cone of white lightning disappeared into each other. To the airy void. Through the mist of years. The fire flared up above Thea's head, and then sank down. The blue seemed to fall to the bottom. The flames turned yellow, like ordinary fire. It was as if a curtain had been drawn. To beyond the veil. That was where Suzanne was now. At the edge of the bonfire, where the residue had been, there was a lump of soft clay. Thea knelt and picked it up. She looked into the center of the flames-and saw a coil of long hair, the color of mahogany. The ends were starting to blacken and shrink in the fire. Thea reached in to grab it. She folded the hair over and quickly pressed the clay around it. It was a clumsy job, Blaise would have done much better, but the hair was enclosed. She groped on the ground for the wooden seal, found it, punched it into the clay. Suzanne's symbol, the cabalistic sign for her name, was printed. It was done. The amulet was restored, Suzanne was trapped again. She'd stay where she belonged unless somebody else was stupid enough to summon her. Thea dropped the amulet without looking at it, got up, and staggered around the fire to where Eric was lying. Her vision was strangely gray. After all thisÃ¢â¬ ¦ he has to be all rightÃ¢â¬ ¦ oh, please, let him beÃ¢â¬ ¦ He moved when she reached him. Ã¢â¬Å"Eric, we did it. She's gone. We did it.Ã¢â¬ He grinned faintly. Said in a scratchy voice, Ã¢â¬Å"You don't have to cry.Ã¢â¬ She hadn't realized she was. Eric sat up. He was terminally mussed, his hair wild, his face dirty. He looked wonderful to her. Ã¢â¬Å"We did it,Ã¢â¬ she whispered again. She reached out to smooth his hair, and her hand stayed there. He glanced at the fire, then back at her. Ã¢â¬Å"I kind of hated to say those things to her. I mean, no matter how bad she wasÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He touched Thea's neck, stroking gently. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you okay? I think you've got a bruise.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Me? You're the one who really got it.Ã¢â¬ She put her free hand to his throat, fingers just barely touching. Ã¢â¬Å"But I know what you mean,Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"I felt-sorry-for her at the end.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't cry again. Please. I really hate that,Ã¢â¬ he whispered, and he put his free arm around her. And then they were just kissing madly. Deliriously. Laughing and kissing and holding each other. She could taste her own tears on his lips, warming with his warmth, and she was trembling like a bird in a thicket. A few moments later a noise broke in. Thea didn't want to move, but Eric looked, and then he stiffened. Ã¢â¬Å"Uh, we've got company.Ã¢â¬ Thea looked up. There were cars just outside the sandstone pillars. Parked cars. They must have driven up sometime during the fight with Suzanne, while the roar of the fire blocked out the sound of their engines, while Thea's attention was focused on the wraith trying to Ml her. Because the people were already out of the cars. Grandma Harman, supported by Aunt Ursula. Rhys in his lab coat. Dumpling-shaped Mother Cybele, with her hand on Aradia's arm. Old Bob, Nans Buruku. Most of the Inner Circle was here.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The letter h may be the easiest of all the Spanish letters to pronounce: With the only exceptions being a very few words of obvious foreign origin and the two-letter combinations explained next, the h is always silent. In Combinations and Alone The letter combinations ch, which used to be considered a separate letter of the alphabet, and the sh in flash and a few other imported words are pronounced basically the same as in English; however, the usual silence of h doesnt mean its pronunciation doesnt sometimes trip up beginning Spanish students. Those who speak English as a first language often want to pronounce the letter when it is in a cognate, that is, a Spanish word that is more or less the same as English. For example, the h should not be pronounced in words such as vehÃ culo (vehicle), Habana (Havana), Honduras and prohibir (prohibit), as tempting as it may be. Etymology If the h is silent, why does it exist? For reasons of etymology (word history) only. Just as the k in the English know and the b in lamb used to be audible, the Spanish h used to be pronounced ages ago. Almost all Spanish consonants have become softer over the years; the h became so soft as to become inaudible. The Spanish h also was used to separate two vowels that werent pronounced as one, that is as a diphthong. For example, the word for owl used to be spelled as buho to indicate that it was pronounced as two syllables rather than rhyming with the first syllable of cuota or quota. Nowadays, though, an accent is used over a stressed vowel to indicate the lack of a diphthong, so the word is written as bÃ ºho. In this case, then, the accent isnt used to indicate stress as it usually does, but as a guide to the proper pronunciation of the vowels. Also, these days it is standard for the h between vowels to be ignored in pronunciation; that is, the vowels sometimes run together despite the h between them, depending on how they are stressed. For example, prohibir is pronounced more or less the same as proibir would be. Note, though, that when the stress is on the second syllable in forms of this word, it is accented and pronounced clearly. Thus conjugated forms of the verb include prohÃ bes, prohÃ be, and prohÃ ben. Also, this is why bÃ ºho (owl) isÃ spelled with an accent mark. The accent assures that this word is pronounced as bÃ ºoÃ rather than buo. Similarly, alcohol is pronounced as alcol, not as alco-ol with a brief pause (known as a glottal stop) between the o and o.Ã Exceptions The words where the h is pronounced? Apparently, the only such word that is recognized by the Royal Spanish Academy as fully Spanish is hÃ ¡mster, a cognate of the English word for hamster, although it came to Spanish by way of German. It is pronounced much as it is in German or English as if it were spelled jÃ ¡mster. Other imported words, listed by the Academy as foreign or not listed at all, in which native speakers often pronounce the h include hockey (not to be confused with jockey), hobby (plural usually hobbys), Hong Kong (and some other place names), hacker and hit (baseball term or a major success). Also, jalar and halar (to pull) are often used synonymously, and in some regions, it is common to pronounce jalar even while writing halar.